bronze figure of Germania, 34 feet in height, surmounts a richly decorated pedestal. The monument was unveiled on September 28, 1883.
2. als Deutschland nur ein geographischer Begriff war, see page 190, line 6.
3. als die große Kunde über den Ozean kam, the news of the establishment of the German empire, January 18, 1871.
Page 202. – 1. der Rotbart im Kyffhäuser sei erwacht, the Kyffhäuser is a mountainous region in central Germany between the Harz mountains and the Thuringian Forest. The ruins of the old Kyffhausen castle, a favorite residence of the German emperors, are still standing on the highest peak. The legend, according to which the ruins were inhabited by an emperor who would return to establish German unity, goes back to the 15th century. It was originally connected with Frederick II, 1215–1250, but since the appearance of Friedrich Rückert’s ballad of Barbarossa, it has generally been attributed to Frederick I, Barbarossa, 1152–1190, who was drowned on the third crusade in Asia Minor. The emperor was said to be shut up in the Kyffhäuser with his beard growing through the table, and the ravens, symbols of evil, were supposed to encircle the mountain until Germany should again be united. This was accomplished in 1871 under William I, and a magnificent memorial of this emperor adorns the mountain. A statue of Barbarossa forms a feature of the monument.
2. der … deutsche Michel, Michel is a popular abbreviation of Michael. Der deutsche Michel represents for Germany what Uncle Sam or Brother Jonathan does for the United States, or John Bull for England.
Page 203. – 1. der demütigen Leistung … des Jahres 1876, at the international Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia in 1876, Germany’s exhibit was not a credit to the country. The German commissioner himself characterized the German industrial exhibit as „billig und schlecht.“ At Chicago, in 1893, the exhibit of the German manufacturers, both in quality and in quantity, formed one of the most noteworthy features of the exposition.
Page 204. – 1. „Billig und schlecht,“ see previous note.